Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Essay Sample

Abstraction
A traumatic event affects many people in assorted ways. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) is a globally recognized upset that is common among individuals who have experienced traumatic events. but is besides known as a normal response by normal individuals in unnatural state of affairss. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder can be caused by a battalion of grounds. non merely from traumatic events. Peoples with assorted personality traits can be associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Peoples who suffer from hapless wellness can besides be associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Peoples who suffer assorted life happenings such as colza. natural catastrophes. military forces. and victims of domestic maltreatment are merely a few illustrations of who can see Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a governable upset. The intervention is long. and will affect guidance. medicine. desensitisation. and possible support groups. Treatment will besides include the victim. household members. and perchance friends of those diagnosed with the upset.

Introduction
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. more normally referred to as PTSD. is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association ( DSM_IV. 1994 ) in this manner “…characteristic symptoms following exposure to an utmost traumatic stressor” ( Diane Everstine & A ; Louis Everstine. 2006. p. 153 ) . PTSD affects 1000000s of people every twelvemonth and does non know apart against civilization. race. or age. It is an anxiousness upset that frequently consequences from a nerve-racking event such as a natural catastrophe. colza. or war. Many times the symptoms last longer than a month ( Ronald Comer. 2011 ) . Lt. Col. Kevin Stevenson. head of the Department of Social Work at Moncrief Army Community Hospital at Fort Jackson. S. C. . notes that “PTSD is a normal physiological response to being in a traumatic event – war. natural catastrophes. auto accidents or working in an exigency room. ” he said. “The symptoms can attest physically. emotionally and cognitively. In most instances. exhibiting marks of PTSD is non a cause for concern. After six to eight hebdomads the symptoms tend to vanish. If they persist for a drawn-out period. that’s when we have concerns” ( Glasch. Mike. A. . 2007 ) .

The American Psychiatric Association ( 2000 ) notes that PTSD is characterized by the reliving of an highly traumatic event that is accompanied by the symptoms of rousing and turning away that is associated with the injury. The event must “first. to measure up for a diagnosing of PTSD harmonizing to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition ( DSM-IV ; American Psychiatric Association. 1994 ) . the person must hold experienced. witnessed. or otherwise been confronted with an event that involved existent or threatened decease. serious hurt. or menace to physical unity. Second. the individual’s response to the event must include intense fright. weakness. or horror” ( Patricia A. Resick & A ; Karen S. Calhoun. 2001. p. 65 ) . The events of the past injury can be sudden and can come on sudden for the PTSD sick person. This can be really unsafe because it can do utmost fright. flashbacks. and anxiousness. PTSD sick persons can no longer utilize normal get bying accomplishments and frequently times are a different individual as a consequence of the traumatic event they have experienced.

PTSD sick persons may besides endure from panic onslaughts. numbness. and utmost hurt. Those who besides suffer from PTSD may besides go substance maltreaters and suffer from chronic physical hurting ( in deepness. 2013 ) . One traumatic event that can onset PTSD is natural catastrophes. Natural catastrophes can be defined as “large-scale. non straight human-caused. injury-or –death-producing environmental events that adversely affect a important figure of people” ( John N. Briere & A ; Catherine Scott. 2013. p. 9 ) . They are classified as such things as inundations. fires. temblors. hurricanes. or twisters. Many natural catastrophes are lay waste toing and the victim looses ownerships. may free loved 1s or close friends. and many times end up holding to besides relocate due to their loss. Not all persons are affected by these events. Those that are significantly affected normally have suffered a traumatic loss. witnessed decease. or have had a serious hurt ( in deepness. 2013 ) . These factors can lend to symptoms associated with PTSD.

Victims besides referred to as subsisters of natural catastrophes are cognizant of their losingss and are affected in different ways. and many times this is due to their age and/or phase in life. The aged frequently times feel they are excessively old to get down over once more and experience the loss of all their ownerships. particularly household ownerships. images. and memories of kids in the younger old ages is excessively much to get the better of ( Lee Ann Hoff. Bonnie Joyce Hallisey. & A ; Miracle Hoff. 2009 ) . For some subsisters anger and defeat can put in. They besides have feelings of guilt because they have survived the catastrophe. Survivors besides have feelings of anxiousness and flashbacks. particularly if they hear or see things that trigger memories of the catastrophe. Children are particularly susceptible to incubuss and frequently times do non desire to be left entirely after a catastrophe. Those who suffer from PTSD due to a natural catastrophe may hold symptoms that are terrible and last for a months or even a life-time. Others may be able to get the better of their symptoms and retrace a new life. a new place. and travel forward. Some find comfort in reconstructing in the same country. while others need to travel to a new country and happen a fresh start.

H. Norman Wright provinces ( 2011. p. 193 ) “the encephalon is a creative activity at the manus of G-d. It is alone in its design. purposeful in its creative activity and wondrous made ( see Ps. 139 ) ” . Because the encephalon is split into two sides. right and left. we utilize the right side for images and memories. When one is enduring from PTSD. those flashbacks. or traumatic memories. drama in the right side about like a film. The Bible ( ESV ) notes that Paul experienced posttraumatic emphasis upset but overcame and as in 2 Corinthians 1:6. “If we are afflicted. it is for your comfort and salvation” . Paul continued to concentrate on assisting people instead than concentrating on his ain hurt. The Bible Teachs us to concentrate on G-d and non to concentrate on our injury. This will go on to assist in the healing procedure and aid those who are reding those who are enduring from PTSD. The Bible tends to concentrate both on the realistic facets of PTSD every bit good as how to populate a complete and new life after the affects of PTSD. Appraisal

There are several different appraisals that can be used for victims of injury to find the degree of emphasis and if a victim is enduring from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The best consequences will happen if the clinical work is directed at the symptoms expressed by the ensuing injury. When measuring the intervention program. “the psychic hurt caused by the event and its impact on the survivor’s normal life forms and his or her worldview must be accounted for” ( Everstine & A ; Everstine. 2006. p. 161 ) . A individual who has been raped should non be treated in the same mode as person who has lost everything in a inundation. It is of import to retrieve that certain things will trip memories for some and others will be asleep and want to avoid memories of the event.

It is of import to cognize how long ago the event occurred when inventing a intervention program. If the event is reasonably recent. a counsellor can work on adaptative and get bying mechanisms that will assist to live over the current symptoms. The more recent intervention is to the event the shorter the intervention will be. Our normal “flight and fight” mechanisms tend to construct mechanisms of defence the longer a individual has been covering with the injury. It is besides of import to retrieve that events such as natural catastrophes will hold effects on people because they may believe that their destiny has been determined and that their lives are ruined everlastingly. Even a informant to a injury has to be treated otherwise than a victim. Witnesss tend to experience guilty because they were non affected like the victims.

It is really of import when covering with injury victims to retrieve that some victims will believe that the event was non traumatic. This is seen more in events such as physical maltreatment or incest ( Everstine & A ; Everstine. 2006 ) . but can besides be seen with natural catastrophes or other environmental injury. Some people fear they will be perceived as weak if they admit they are holding problem covering with the injury. Many times societal stigma can impede intervention. Other times victims will experience they are shamed or an castaway if they admit they are holding jobs due to a injury. Sometimes if a individual has experienced a injury before this will besides play a factor when measuring a intervention program for a victim.

There are assorted checklists that a counsellor can utilize to measure a victim to assist find their province of crisis they are in or if they even recognize they are in a victim of a injury. The inquiries should be prefaced by a phrase such as “a scaring thing has happened to you” . This lets the victim know that the counsellor or interviewer is empathic to their state of affairs and is caring. Questions can run from “Did you feel angry? ” to “Did you lose trust in people? ” and inquiries should be different for grownups than for kids. There are besides specific interview inquiries that can be asked in a catastrophe state of affairs to find if a individual needs to be triaged and at hazard for PTSD. for illustration: 1. Are you holding flashbacks? 2. Make you experience numb. detached. estranged? ( Everstine & A ; Everstine. 2006 ) .

It is ever of import when measuring the victim to remind them that PTSD symptoms do happen often in the general population yet be empathic to the victim every bit good ( Frueh. Christopher. Grubaugh. Anouk. Elhai. Jon D. . & A ; Ford. Julian D. . 2012 ) . One type of appraisal that can be used is the Brief Interview for Posttraumatic Disorders ( BIPD ) . This is used for those who do non desire a really structured interview ( Breiere & A ; Scott. 2013 ) . This peculiar interview will reexamine all the symptoms that are reviewed in the DSM-IV definition for PTSD. Certain standards must be met in order for the victim to be diagnosed with PTSD. One standard is that the victim must hold been exposed to a traumatic event prior to the last month in which both of the following were present: it involved decease. possible decease. serious hurt. menace to physical unity. developmentally inappropriate sexual experiences. and the victims response to he event involved intense fright. horror. or weakness ( Briere & A ; Scott. 2013 ) . If no is the reply to any of the standards than the interview is stopped and the victim could be assessed for some other upset.

Other appraisals should besides be made and it is of import to include a generic psychological appraisal because PTSD includes symptoms of anxiousness. depression and psychosis. Some illustrations of these generic appraisals are the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. 2nd Edition. Psychological Assessment Inventory. and the symptom Checklist 90-revised. These trials are of import because they can state if a victim is under or over coverage symptoms ( Briere & A ; Scott. 2013 ) . It is frequently found that those enduring from injury may overstate their symptoms or even deny they have symptoms. but when utilizing these scaled trials their higher tonss can portray the effects of the injury and possible symptoms of PTSD. Sometimes tonss are skewed because symptoms that can be associated with PTSD can besides be associated with anxiousness and depression. This can be seen when person is asleep. has jobs kiping. or can non concentrate ( Frueh. Grubaugh. Elhai. & A ; Ford. 2012 ) .

More specific Posttraumatic Stress Disorder trials are geared to mensurate and measure certain standards specific to certain symptoms of PTSD. The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale ( PDS ) evaluates the exposure to the injury and how it interferes with the victim’s day-to-day life ( Briere & A ; Scott. 2013 ) . The Davidson Trauma Scale ( DTS ) evaluates and steps such facets as the victim’s invasion. numbness. turning away. and hyper rousing to certain events. It can besides be used to prove and retest when the victim is traveling through therapy ( Briere & A ; Scott. 2013 ) . The Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress ( DAPS ) steps and evaluates lifetime exposures to traumatic events and immediate responses to specified injury ( Briere & A ; Scott. 2013 ) . The Trauma symptoms Inventory-2 ( TSI-2 ) steps and evaluates exposure to trauma over a certain period of clip. These trials are really of import when measuring what types of intervention are needed and how terrible one is enduring from PTSD.

When measuring one for PTSD it is besides of import to measure their current wellness position. The counsellor needs to be cognizant of any medicines the victim is presently taking ; this includes vitamins and herbal addendums. The victim should besides unwrap if they have any current medical conditions because those who suffer from injury may see physical jobs and it is of import to cognize which are medically related and which are trauma related. Some medical jobs can be similar to PTSD symptoms and it is of import to cognize a full medical history before handling a victim for PTSD physical symptoms. ( Briere & A ; Scott. 2013 ) .

G-d does non allow us endure more than one can digest. The hurting and agony from PTSD gives one the strength to look frontward and happen trust and hope in G-d. As the symptoms of PTSD originate one can retrieve that G-d ne’er gives a individual more than they can manage. One needs to retrieve how Abraham was willing to give Jacob or the Israelites subjugation until Esther became queen. It is of import non to concentrate on 1s self and ain agony. but to retrieve that G-d wants one to concentrate one why there is enduring and how he is conveying his people back to him. Wright ( 2011 ) notes that Spiritual journaling. or merely journaling. can assist one work through the symptoms of PTSD. It allows one to concentrate on their agony and work through the healing procedure. Treatment

Assorted interventions are available to those who suffer from PTSD. The most of import intervention is early intercession. If a counsellor or clinician can see a victim at the scene of the catastrophe or shortly after. there is a better opportunity to cut down the badness and continuance of PTSD. It is really of import to supply the victims with educational information about posttraumatic emphasis. what they can anticipate. how long it may last. and where they can seek aid ( Everstine & A ; Everstine. 2006 ) . It is of import to get down the traumatized individual towards the recovery every bit shortly as possible. At times early intercession will non work for those who have been badly traumatized. These people are non ever able to work intellectually. They may hold problem merely making the rudimentss of life and can non believe beyond acquiring through their normal day-to-day lives. They will non be able to cognitively treat what has happened to them and if they are asked excessively. they will merely go baffled and frustrated when asked to explicate what has happened to them. This can do them to “shut down” ( Everstine & A ; Everstine. 2006 ) . It is of import to stabilise the victim.

By stabilising the victim. the counsellor or clinician will assist the victim reconnect with world. They need to go safe once more in their milieus and get down to work intellectually. Sometimes this will take long periods of clip and necessitate psychotherapeutics. and other times. this will take a short period of clip. and no drastic therapy stairss are needed. It is besides of import to retrieve to utilize short reply inquiries when working with PTSD victims. Asking open-ended inquiries can do confusion and defeat because many times these victims can non explicate their feelings or express deep feelings ( Everstine & A ; Everstine. 2006 ) . Assorted other therapies can besides assist those who suffer from PTSD. One therapy that is successful is cognitive therapy. This therapy allows the victim to understand their ideas about the injury and what causes the stressors and makes the symptoms worse ( US Department of Veterans Affairs. 2014 ) . Through cognitive therapy the victim learns to cover with their frights. replace those fearful ideas with ideas that cause less emphasis. and besides learn to halt experiencing ideas of choler and guilt ( US Department of Veterans Affairs. 2014 ) .

Many times a victim feels guilty for lasting and the victim needs to understand that they can non alter what has happened and they were non selected to populate versus person who might hold passed in a natural catastrophe or some other traumatic event. Exposure therapy besides assists those with PTSD. This therapy assists those victims with their fright about their memories and/or flashbacks they may be sing. The victim spends clip in their therapy session talking about their injury. By the continual speaking they learn to command their ideas and feelings about the injury and larn to be no longer be afraid of their memories ( US Department of Veterans Affairs. 2014 ) . It is of import for the victim to understand that their flashbacks can be in any of the centripetal manners. including auditory. tactile. and olfactive ( Everstine & A ; Everstine. 2006 ) . It helps for the victim to understand that flashbacks can come at anytime because they are stimulated by their milieus. As they pattern techniques. such as relaxation. these flashbacks should lessen.

The victim needs to be patient as they are non traveling to travel off instantly and the victim will necessitate to work at it to do them decrease. Another intervention that can assist a victim of PTSD is household therapy. Many times a household has experienced some signifier of injury as a consequence of a natural catastrophe. A victim of PTSD may demo choler. depression. or anxiousness at times and household members may non understand why. This may frighten some members. particularly immature kids. The key to household therapy is that everyone needs to be honest. They need to show their frights. concerns. and the symptoms of PTSD and what triggers them ( US Department of Veterans Affairs. 2014 ) . Treatment can change in length. Treatments can change from three months to every bit long as a twelvemonth or longer. If a victim has other mental wellness issues the intervention could be longer. While a victim is in intervention they will work to cut down their symptoms. larn to populate with their symptoms. and larn to get by with any other jobs that arise due to their PTSD symptoms. Victims will travel through phases of mending through their intervention.

They will see shock/disarray. denial. faulting. pain/anguish. choler. and integration/acceptance ( Young. Trina. ( n. vitamin D ) ) . Some of the phases my bring on anxiousness. such as the first phase. They may non cognize what to experience after a injury. It may be difficult for a victim to even recognize that the catastrophe has even occurred. They may fault themselves even though the catastrophe was due to an environmental cause. They may experience they could hold done something to forestall it even though they may hold non even cognize it was traveling to happen. They may even experience anger towards G-d for allowing this catastrophe go on and destroying things they can no longer possess or repair.

Each phase could take hours or months to treat through. but it is of import for them to travel through each phase in order to mend and go on to a sense of normality. The victim besides needs to be after for on-going recovery. Once they have moved through the phases of mending they can non see themselves wholly healed. They need to guarantee that they have entree to societal support and are prepared for continued on-going therapy. They need to be cognizant of any symptoms such as weariness or thorax strivings that may be marks of reoccurring PTSD. Although they may experience they are “normal” they may see triggers that bring back memories or flashbacks and they have to be ready to seek therapy. Decision

Any type of injury can do PTSD. Natural catastrophes are a signifier of injury that normally can non be controlled by world. The Bible reminds us that G-d loves all his people and that he has non failed us. G-d creates these natural catastrophes in order to remind us to come back to him. Measuring and handling PTSD is non an easy undertaking. Each victim suffers from injury in different ways and it is of import to retrieve that each must be treated unambiguously. There are assorted appraisals that can assist find the badness of PTSD but even those appraisals can be inconclusive if the victim is asleep or in denial. Treatment can be long and boring. and some may decline intervention. It is of import as counsellors or clinicians to retrieve that these victims are delicate and non to force the victims as this can close them down. PTSD is a true unwellness that affects many. regardless of age. sex. or civilization.

Mentions
American Psychiatric Association. ( 2000 ) . Arlington. VA. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. psych. org
Briere. J. & A ; Scott. C. ( 2013 ) . Principles of trauma therapy and intervention ( 2nd ed. ) . Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage Publications.
Comer. Ronald J. ( 2011 ) . Fundamentalss of unnatural psychological science. ( 6th erectile dysfunction ) . New York. New york: Deserving Publishing.
Everstine. D. S. . & A ; Everstine. L. ( 2006 ) . Strategic intercessions for people in crisis. injury. and catastrophe ( Revised Edition ) . New York. New york: Routledge Frueh. Christopher. Grubaugh. Anouk. Elhai. Jon D. . Ford. Julian D. . ( 2012 ) . Assessment and intervention planning for PTSD. Hoboken. New jersey: John Wiley & A ; Sons. Glasch. M. A. ( 2007 ) . Battling PTSD. Soldiers. 62 ( 8 ) . 28-31. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //search. proquest. com/docview/205327424? accountid=12085 Hoff. L. A. . Hallisey. B. J. . & A ; Hoff. M. ( 2009 ) . Peoples in crisis: Clinical and diverseness Perspectives ( 6th ed. ) . New York. New york: Routledge. In deepness. Treating PTSD. ( 2013 ) . PN. 67 ( 8 ) . 13-14.



Resick. Patricia. A. . Monson. Candice. M. & A ; Rizvi. Shireen. L. ( 2001 ) . Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders. New York. NY. Guilford Press. U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs. ( 2014 ) . Posttraumatic stress disorder: National centre for PTSD. Washington. DC. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. posttraumatic stress disorder. va. gov/public/treatment/therapy- med/treatment-ptsd. asp

Wright. H. N. ( 2011 ) . The complete usher to crisis and trauma guidance: What to make and state when it matters most! . Ventura. Calcium: Regal Books. Young. Trina. ( n. vitamin D ) Reacting to ravish and sexual assault. [ CRDC 106 ] . Domestic and Community Crisis Response Video. Lecture retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //learn. autonomy. edu/webapps/portal/frameset. jsp? tab_tab_group_id=_2_1 & A ; url= % 2Fw ebapps % 2Fblackboard % 2Fexecute % 2Flauncher % 3Ftype % 3DCourse % 26id % 3D_50809_1 %

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